One Minute Paper

Author: Calum Crosbie
Facilited by the teacher
The aim is to illustrate the importance of reflection and reinforcement in learning.
30 min.
15-30 students.
Virtual whiteboard


1. The teacher gives prompts for the activity so that students can reflect on their learning, for example:

  • What was the most important idea that you studied yesterday?
  • What was the most confusing thing that you studied yesterday?

2. Students should write a one-minute paper evaluating their learning writing down at least 4 evaluative points about their learning.

3. The teacher creates 2 columns on the virtual whiteboard – ‘Strengths’ and ‘Weaknesses’. The students reflect on their points and write them under the appropriate headings.

4.  The class discusses the points on the virtual whiteboard and highlights strengths and suggests ways to solve the weaknesses.


The activity shows the importance of the reflection and ‘not knowing’ in the learning process. It encourages student engagement as it highlights areas where students may require help. Students gain confidence from reflecting on the initial learning process, which allows them to develop to advanced issues.


Inspired by: Cross and Angelo (1988)